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PostgreSQL教程

PostgreSQL 语法

我们可以使用help命令查看所有postgreSQL命令的语法。请按照以下步骤查看postgreSQL中所有命令的语法。
安装postgreSQL后,以以下方式打开psql:
程序文件> PostgreSQL 9.2> SQL Shell(psql)
使用以下命令查看特定命令的语法。
postgres-#\ help && <command_name>

所有PostgreSQL命令

在这里,我们提供了所有postgreSQL命令及其语法的列表:

ABORT命令:

语法:
ABORT [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

ALTER AGGREGATE命令:

语法:
ALTER AGGREGATE name ( type ) RENAME TO new_name
ALTER AGGREGATE name ( type ) OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER CONVERSION命令:

语法:
ALTER CONVERSION name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER CONVERSION name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER DATABASE命令:

语法:
ALTER DATABASE name SET parameter { TO | = } { value | default }
ALTER DATABASE name RESET parameter
ALTER DATABASE name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER DATABASE name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER DOMAIN命令:

语法:
ALTER DOMAIN name { SET default expression | DROP default }
ALTER DOMAIN name { SET | DROP } NOT null
ALTER DOMAIN name ADD domain_constraint
ALTER DOMAIN name DROP CONSTRAint constraint_name [ RESTRICT | CASCADE ]
ALTER DOMAIN name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER FUNCTION命令:

语法:
ALTER FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) RENAME TO new_name
ALTER FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER GROUP命令:

语法:
ALTER GROUP groupname ADD USER username [, ... ]
ALTER GROUP groupname DROP USER username [, ... ]
ALTER GROUP groupname RENAME TO new_name

ALTER INDEX命令:

语法:
ALTER INDEX name OWNER TO new_owner
ALTER INDEX name SET TABLESPACE indexspace_name
ALTER INDEX name RENAME TO new_name

ALTER LANGUAGE命令:

语法:
ALTER LANGUAGE name RENAME TO new_name

ALTER OPERATOR命令:

语法:
ALTER operator name ( { lefttype | NONE } , { righttype | NONE } )
OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER OPERATOR CLASS命令:

语法:
ALTER operator class name USING index_method RENAME TO new_name
ALTER operator class name USING index_method OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER SCHEMA命令:

语法:
ALTER SCHEMA name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER SCHEMA name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER SEQUENCE命令:

语法:
ALTER SEQUENCE name [ INCREMENT [ BY ] increment ]
[ MINVALUE minvalue | NO MINVALUE ]
[ MAXVALUE maxvalue | NO MAXVALUE ]
[ RESTART [ WITH ] start ] [ CACHE cache ] [ [ NO ] CYCLE ]

ALTER TABLE命令:

语法:
ALTER TABLE [ ONLY ] name [ * ]
action [, ... ]
ALTER TABLE [ ONLY ] name [ * ]
RENAME [ COLUMN ] column TO new_column
ALTER TABLE name
RENAME TO new_name

ALTER TABLESPACE命令:

语法:
ALTER TABLESPACE name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER TABLESPACE name OWNER TO new_owner

ALT TRIGGER命令:

语法:
ALTER TRIGGER name ON table RENAME TO new_name

ALTER TYPE命令:

语法:
ALTER TYPE name OWNER TO new_owner

ALTER USER命令:

语法:
ALTER USER name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]
ALTER USER name RENAME TO new_name
ALTER USER name SET parameter { TO | = } { value | default }
ALTER USER name RESET parameter

ANALYSE命令:

语法:
ANALYZE [ VERBOSE ] [ table [ (column [, ...] ) ] ]

BEGIN命令:

语法:
BEGIN [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] [ transaction_mode [, ...] ]

CHECKPOINT命令:

语法:
CHECKPOINT

CLOSE命令:

语法:
CLOSE name 

CLUSTER命令:

语法:
CLUSTER index_name ON table_name
CLUSTER table_name
CLUSTER

COMMIT命令:

语法:
COMMIT [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

COPY命令:

语法:
COPY table_name [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
FROM { 'filename' | STDIN }
[ [ WITH ]
[ BINARY ]
[ OIDS ]
[ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]
[ null [ AS ] 'null string' ]
[ CSV [ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]
[ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]
[ FORCE NOT null column [, ...] ]
COPY table_name [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
TO { 'filename' | STDOUT }
[ [ WITH ]
[ BINARY ]
[ OIDS ]
[ DELIMITER [ AS ] 'delimiter' ]
[ null [ AS ] 'null string' ]
[ CSV [ QUOTE [ AS ] 'quote' ]
[ ESCAPE [ AS ] 'escape' ]
[ FORCE QUOTE column [, ...] ]

CREATE AGGREGATE命令:

语法:
CREATE AGGREGATE name (
BASETYPE = input_data_type,
SFUNC = sfunc,
STYPE = state_data_type
[ , FINALFUNC = ffunc ]
[ , INITCOND = initial_condition ]
)

CREATE CAST命令:

语法:
CREATE CAST (source_type AS target_type)
WITH FUNCTION func_name (arg_types)
[ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ]
CREATE CAST (source_type AS target_type)
WITHOUT FUNCTION
[ AS ASSIGNMENT | AS IMPLICIT ]

CREATE CREATE CONSTRAINT TRIGGER命令:

语法:
CREATE CONSTRAINT TRIGGER name
AFTER events ON
table_name constraint attributes
for EACH ROW EXECUTE PROCEDURE func_name ( args )

CREATE CONVERSION命令:

语法:
CREATE [DEFAULT] CONVERSION name
for source_encoding TO dest_encoding FROM func_name

CREATE DATABASE命令:

语法:
CREATE DATABASE name
[ [ WITH ] [ OWNER [=] db_owner ]
[ TEMPLATE [=] template ]
[ ENCODING [=] encoding ]
[ TABLESPACE [=] tablespace ] ]

CREATE DOMAIN命令:

语法:
CREATE DOMAIN name [AS] data_type
[ default expression ]
[ constraint [ ... ] ]

CREATE FUNCTION命令:

语法:
CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] FUNCTION name ( [ [ arg_name ] arg_type [, ...] ] )
RETURNS ret_type
{ LANGUAGE lang_name
| IMMUTABLE | STABLE | VOLATILE
| CALLED ON null INPUT | RETURNS null ON null INPUT | STRICT
| [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY INVOKER | [ EXTERNAL ] SECURITY DEFINER
| AS 'definition'
| AS 'obj_file', 'link_symbol'
} ...
[ WITH ( attribute [, ...] ) ]

CREATE GROUP命令:

语法:
CREATE GROUP name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]
Where option can be:
SYSID gid
| USER username [, ...]

CREATE INDEX命令:

语法:
CREATE [ UNIQUE ] INDEX name ON table [ USING method ]
( { column | ( expression ) } [ opclass ] [, ...] )
[ TABLESPACE tablespace ]
[ WHERE predicate ]

CREATE LANGUAGE命令:

语法:
CREATE [ TRUSTED ] [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE name
HANDLER call_handler [ VALIDATOR val_function ]

CREATE operator命令:

语法:
 CREATE operator name (
PROCEDURE = func_name
[, LEFTARG = left_type ] [, RIGHTARG = right_type ]
[, COMMUTATOR = com_op ] [, NEGATOR = neg_op ]
[, RESTRICT = res_proc ] [, JOIN = join_proc ]
[, HASHES ] [, MERGES ]
[, SORT1 = left_sort_op ] [, SORT2 = right_sort_op ]
[, LTCMP = less_than_op ] [, GTCMP = greater_than_op ]
)

CREATE operator命令:

语法:
CREATE operator class name [ default ] for TYPE data_type
USING index_method AS
{ operator strategy_number operator_name [ ( op_type, op_type ) ] [ RECHECK ]
| FUNCTION support_number func_name ( argument_type [, ...] )
| STORAGE storage_type
} [, ... ]

CREATE RULE命令:

语法:
CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] RULE name AS ON event
TO table [ WHERE condition ]
do [ ALSO | INSTEAD ] { NOTHING | command | ( command ; command ... ) }

CREATE SCHEMA命令:

语法:
CREATE SCHEMA schema_name
[ AUTHORIZATION username ] [ schema_element [ ... ] ]
CREATE SCHEMA AUTHORIZATION username
[ schema_element [ ... ] ]

CREATE SEQUENCE命令:

语法:
CREATE [ TEMPORARY | TEMP ] SEQUENCE name
[ INCREMENT [ BY ] increment ]
[ MINVALUE minvalue | NO MINVALUE ]
[ MAXVALUE maxvalue | NO MAXVALUE ]
[ START [ WITH ] start ] [ CACHE cache ] [ [ NO ] CYCLE ]

CREATE TABLE:

语法:
CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { TEMPORARY | TEMP } ] TABLE table_name (
{ column_name data_type [ default default_expr ] [ column_constraint [ ... ] ]
| table_constraint
| LIKE parent_table [ { INCLUDING | EXCLUDING } DEFAULTS ] } [, ... ]
)
[ INHERITS ( parent_table [, ... ] ) ]
[ WITH OIDS | WITHOUT OIDS ]
[ ON COMMIT { PRESERVE ROWS | DELETE ROWS | DROP } ]
[ TABLESPACE tablespace ]

CREATE TABLE AS命令:

语法:
CREATE [ [ GLOBAL | LOCAL ] { TEMPORARY | TEMP } ] TABLE table_name
[ (column_name [, ...] ) ] [ [ WITH | WITHOUT ] OIDS ]
AS query

CREATE TABLESPACE命令:

语法:
CREATE TABLESPACE tablespace_name [ OWNER username ] LOCATION 'directory'

CRFEATE TRIGGER命令:

语法:
CREATE TRIGGER name { BEFORE | AFTER } { event [ OR ... ] }
ON table [ for [ EACH ] { ROW | STATEMENT } ]
EXECUTE PROCEDURE func_name ( arguments )

CREATE TYPE命令:

语法:
CREATE TYPE name AS
( attribute_name data_type [, ... ] )
CREATE TYPE name (
INPUT = input_function,
OUTPUT = output_function
[ , RECEIVE = receive_function ]
[ , SEND = send_function ]
[ , ANALYZE = analyze_function ]
[ , INTERNALLENGTH = { internal_length | VARIABLE } ]
[ , PASSEDBYVALUE ]
[ , ALIGNMENT = alignment ]
[ , STORAGE = storage ]
[ , default = default ]
[ , ELEMENT = element ]
[ , DELIMITER = delimiter ]
)

CREATE USER命令:

语法:
CREATE USER name [ [ WITH ] option [ ... ] ]

CREATE VIEW命令:

语法:
CREATE [ OR REPLACE ] VIEW name [ ( column_name [, ...] ) ] AS query

DEALLOCATE命令:

语法:
DEALLOCATE [ PREPARE ] plan_name

DECLARE命令:

语法:
DECLARE name [ BINARY ] [ INSENSITIVE ] [ [ NO ] SCROLL ]
CURSOR [ { WITH | WITHOUT } HOLD ] for query
[ for { READ ONLY | UPDATE [ OF column [, ...] ] } ]

DELETE命令:

语法:
DELETE FROM [ ONLY ] table [ WHERE condition ]

DROP AGGREGATE命令:

语法:
DROP AGGREGATE name ( type ) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP CAST命令:

语法:
DROP CAST (source_type AS target_type) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP CONVERSION命令:

语法:
DROP CONVERSION name [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP DATABASE命令:

语法:
DROP DATABASE name

DROP DOMAIN命令:

语法:
DROP DOMAIN name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP FUNCTION命令:

语法:
DROP FUNCTION name ( [ type [, ...] ] ) [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP GROUP命令:

语法:
DROP GROUP name

DROP INDEX命令:

语法:
DROP INDEX name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP LANGUAGE命令:

语法:
DROP [ PROCEDURAL ] LANGUAGE name [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP OPERATOR命令:

语法:
DROP operator name ( { left_type | NONE } , { right_type | NONE } )
[ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP OPERATOR CLASS命令:

语法:
DROP operator class name USING index_method [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP RULE命令:

语法:
DROP RULE name ON relation [CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP SCHEMA命令:

语法:
DROP SCHEMA name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP SEQUENCE命令:

语法:
DROP SEQUENCE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP TABLE命令:

语法:
DROP TABLE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP TABLESPACE命令:

语法:
DROP TABLESPACE tablespace_name

DROP TRIGGER命令:

语法:
DROP TRIGGER name ON table [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP TYPE命令:

语法:
DROP TYPE name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

DROP USER命令:

语法:
DROP USER name

DROP VIEW命令:

语法:
DROP VIEW name [, ...] [ CASCADE | RESTRICT ]

END命令:

语法:
END [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

EXECUTE命令:

语法:
EXECUTE plan_name [ (parameter [, ...] ) ]

EXPLAIN命令:

语法:
EXPLAIN [ ANALYZE ] [ VERBOSE ] statement

FETCH命令:

语法:
FETCH [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursor_name

INSERT命令:

语法:
INSERT INTO table [ ( column [, ...] ) ]
{ default VALUES | VALUES ( { expression | default } [, ...] ) | query }

LISTEN命令:

语法:
LISTEN name

LOAD命令:

语法:
LOAD 'filename'

LOCK命令

语法:
LOCK [ TABLE ] name [, ...] [ IN lock_mode MODE ] [ NOWAIT ]

MOVE命令:

语法:
MOVE [ direction { FROM | IN } ] cursor_name

NOTIFY命令:

语法:
NOTIFY name

PREPARE命令:

语法:
PREPARE plan_name [ (data_type [, ...] ) ] AS statement

REINDEX命令:

语法:
REINDEX { DATABASE | TABLE | INDEX } name [ FORCE ]

RESET命令:

语法:
RESET name
RESET ALL

ROLLBACK命令:

语法:
ROLLBACK [ WORK | TRANSACTION ]

回滚到SAVEPOINT命令:

语法:
ROLLBACK [ WORK | TRANSACTION ] TO [ SAVEPOint ] savepoint_name

SAVEPOINT命令:

语法:
SAVEPOint savepoint_name

SELECT命令:

语法:
SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT [ ON ( expression [, ...] ) ] ]
* | expression [ AS output_name ] [, ...]
[ FROM from_item [, ...] ]
[ WHERE condition ]
[ GROUP BY expression [, ...] ]
[ HAVING condition [, ...] ]
[ { UNION | INTERSECT | EXCEPT } [ ALL ] select ]
[ ORDER BY expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [, ...] ]
[ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]
[ OFFSET start ]
[ for UPDATE [ OF table_name [, ...] ] ]

SELECT INTO命令:

语法:
SELECT [ ALL | DISTINCT [ ON ( expression [, ...] ) ] ]
* | expression [ AS output_name ] [, ...]
INTO [ TEMPORARY | TEMP ] [ TABLE ] new_table
[ FROM from_item [, ...] ]
[ WHERE condition ]
[ GROUP BY expression [, ...] ]
[ HAVING condition [, ...] ]
[ { UNION | INTERSECT | EXCEPT } [ ALL ] select ]
[ ORDER BY expression [ ASC | DESC | USING operator ] [, ...] ]
[ LIMIT { count | ALL } ]
[ OFFSET start ]
[ for UPDATE [ OF table_name [, ...] ] ]

SET命令:

语法:
SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] name { TO | = } { value | 'value' | default }
SET [ SESSION | LOCAL ] TIME ZONE { time_zone | LOCAL | default }

SET CONSTRAINTS命令:

语法:
SET CONSTRAINTS { ALL | name [, ...] } { DEFERRED | IMMEDIATE }

SET TRANSACTION命令:

语法:
SET TRANSACTION transaction_mode [, ...]
SET SESSION CHARACTERISTICS AS TRANSACTION transaction_mode [, ...]

SHOW命令:

语法:
SHOW name
SHOW ALL

START TRANSACTION:

语法:
START TRANSACTION [ transaction_mode [, ...] ]

TRUNCATE TABLE命令:

语法:
TRUNCATE [ TABLE ] name

UPDATE命令:

语法:
UPDATE [ ONLY ] table SET column = { expression | default } [, ...]
[ FROM from_list ]
[ WHERE condition ]

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